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DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE 

Directional control valves are one of the most fundamental parts in hydraulic machinery. They allow fluid flow into different paths from one or more sources. They usually consist of a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically controlled. The movement of the spool restricts or permits the flow, thus it controls the fluid flow.


The spool (sliding type) consists of lands and grooves.The lands block oil flow through the valve body. The grooves allow oil to flow around the spool and through the valve body.There are two fundamental positions of directional control valve namely normal position where valve returns on removal of actuating force and other is working position which is position of a valve when actuating force is applied.


CLASSIFICATION

Directional control valves can be classified according to

  • Number of ports
  • Number of positions
  • Actuating methods
  • Actuating methods
  • Type of spool

Example: A 5/2 directional control valve would have five ports and two spool positions.

NUMBER OF PORTS

According to total number of entries or exits connected to the valve through which fluid can enter the valve or leave the valve there are types like two way,three way,four way valves.

NUMBER OF POSITIONS

Including the normal and working positions which a valve spool can take there are types like two position,three position valves.

ACTUATING METHODS

MANUALY OPERATED

Manually operated valves work with simple levers or paddles where the operator applies force to operate the valve. Spring force is used to recover the position of valve.

MECHANICALLY OPERATED

Mechanically operated valve apply forces by using cams,wheels,rollers etc.hence these valves are subjected to wear.